1. Kashmiri Phonology

We will be using a modification of the Roman alphabet in this study. The alphabet has been devised primarily to cater to the language needs of the Kashmiri diaspora who do not have access to formal literacy in the native language nor sufficient training in Nastāliq (the official writing system of Kashmiri) or Devenāgri (alternate writing system for the language). The alphabet could also act as a bridge for cross communication between speakers of Kashmiri who cannot read either of the two aforementioned scripts. This is work in progress. Please feel free to provide feedback and suggestions and check back for updates.

(Note: Click here to type IPA or modified Roman symbols on your computer)

Phonetic description IPA symbol Spelling Examples in Kashmiri
Low central vowel (short) a a bar ‘fill; Imperative’
Low central vowel (long) aa aa / ā bār ‘weight, burden (n.)’
High front vowel (short) i i sir ‘secret (n.)’
High front vowel (long) ii ii / ī sīr ‘brick (n.)’
Mid-high front vowel (short) e e khesh ‘lock (of hair)’, hety ‘bought (m.pl)’
Open mid front short vowel ɛ e /ya sekh/syakh ‘sand’, reth/ryath ‘month’
Mid-high front vowel (long) ee ee / ē sēr ‘sir (unit of weight)’, tsēr ‘delay’
Mid-high back round vowel (short) o o kol ‘mute (m.sg)’, lot ‘light (m.sg)’, son/sron ‘deep’
Open mid back round vowel (short) ɔ wa kwal ‘stream’, khwan ‘lap (n.)’, swan ‘gold’
Mid-high back round vowel (long) oo oo /ō khōl ‘open; Imperative’
High back round short vowel u u hum ‘they (prox.)’
High back round long vowel uu uu /ū mūl ‘root(s)’
High central vowel (short) ɨ kṳm ‘who (pl.)’, tṳr ‘rag’
High central vowel (long) ɨɨ ṳṳ /ṳ̄ kṳ̄ts ‘how much (f.sg.), tṳ̄r ‘cold (n.)’
Mid central vowe (short) ə  ə /a̤ kəts ‘how many’, kər ‘did (Obj.m.sg)’
Mid central vowe (long) əə  ə̄ / ā̤ kə̄m ‘work (n.)’, kə̄r ‘neck’
Voiceless bilabial stop (unaspirated) p p pan ‘thread’
Voiceless bilabial stop (aspirated) ph phal ‘fruit’
Voiced bilabial stop b b bar ‘door’
Voiceless dental stop (unaspirated) t t tīl ‘oil’
Voiceless dental stop (aspirated) th thakh ‘rest (n.)’
Voiced dental stop d d dan ‘handle (n.)’
Voiceless retroflex stop (unaspirated) ʈ t̩ang ‘pear (n.)’
Voiceless retroflex stop (aspirated) ʈʰ t̩h t̩huk ‘knock (n.)’
Voiced retroflex stop ɖ d̩okh ‘support, backing (n.)’
Voiceless velar stop (unaspirated) k k kan ‘ear’
Voiceless velar stop (aspirated) kh khan ‘dig; Imperative’
Voiced velar stop g g gal ‘melt; Imperative’
Voiceless palatal affricate (unaspirated) t͡ʃ c/ č čāy ‘tea’
Voiceless palatal affricate (aspirated) t͡ʃʰ ch / čh čhal ‘wash; Imperative’
Voiced palatal affricate d͡ʒ j jad ‘ancestor’
Voiceless dental affricate (unaspirated)  t͡s ts tsal ‘run away; Imperative’
Voiceless dental affricate (aspirated)  t͡sʰ tsh tshal ‘trap (n.)’
Voiceless labio-dental fricative *(marginal) f f/ph faraq/pharakh ‘difference’ (
Voiced labio-dental fricative v v varuk ‘page’ (Ur. waraq)
Voiceless velar fricative x kh khabar ‘news’
Voiced velar fricative *(marginal) ɣ gh ghalat ~galat ‘wrong’
Voiceless glottal fricative h h hath ‘hundred’
Voiceless alveolar fricative s s sar ‘lake’
Voiced alveolar fricative z z zar ‘deafness’
Voiceless alveo-palatal fricative ʃ sh shakh ‘suspicion’
Alveolar nasal n n nam ‘nail’
Bilabial nasal m m mal ‘dirt’
Voiced Lateral Liquid/Approximant l l lot ‘light (m.sg)
Voiced Alveolar Liquid/Approximant r r rath ‘blood’
Palatal Glide y y yakh ‘ice’, lay ‘rhythm’
Palatalized Cosonansts C+y (Note: We can use <y̆> when in final position).
Palatal nasal ny nyuk ‘thin (m.sg)’, mony/mony̆ ‘kiss’
Palatalized bilabial nasal my myul ‘association, likeness’, humy/humy̆ ‘he; Ergative’
Palatalized velar stop (voiceless unaspirated) ky kyom ‘insect’, pəky/pəky̆ ‘(they) walked’
Palatalized velar stop (voiceless aspirated) khy khyol ‘(a) herd’, hokhy ‘dry (m.pl.)’
Palatalized velar stop (voiced) gy gyav ‘ghee, vegetable oil’, drogy ‘expensive (m.pl.)
Palatalized labial stop (voiceless) py pyot ‘tip (n.)’, tsəpy ‘bite (n.) (m.pl)’
Palatalized labial stop (voiceless aspirated) phy phyūr ‘drop (n.)’
Palatalized labial stop (voiced) by byul ‘blue/green-eyed (m.sg), dəby ‘washermen’
Palatalized voiceless dental stop (unaspirated) ty tyūr ‘(a) sheep (m.sg)’, loty ‘light (m.pl)’
Palatalized voiceless dental stop (aspirated) thy thyok ‘(he/she) bragged’, əthy ‘(to) this only’
Palatalized voiced dental stop dy dyār ‘money’, pədy ‘feet/hoofs’ (cf. pod ‘foot.hoof’)
Pal. voiceless retroflex stop (unaspirated) t̩y t̩yok ‘dot, drop (n.)’, pət̩y
Pal. voiceless retroflex stop (aspirated) t̩hy t̩hyup ‘(small) cage (n.)’, kot̩hy ‘knees’ (cf. kot̩h ‘knee’)
Pal. voiced retroflex stop d̩y d̩yol ‘loose (m.sg.)’, bəd̩y ‘big (m.pl)’
Palatalized s sy syod ‘straight’, syun ‘(cooked) vegetable/meat’
Palatalized l ly lyob ‘a blob (m.sg), lyodur ‘yellow’, həly ‘twisted (m.pl)’
Palatalized r ry ryūnz ‘(certain) insect (?)’, dəry ‘firm/strong (m.pl.)’